In recent years, the attention of pulmonologists and rheumatologists was focused on the link between interstitial lung disease (ILD) and systemic connective tissue disease (CTD). The development of precise criteria has become a major aim due to the growing number of patients diagnosed with ILD, the variety of antibodies, and characteristic features of various rheumatic diseases. Diagnosing interstitial lung disease associated with systemic connective tissue disease, as well as identifying idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, is still a challenge due to the many nosological units in which there is signifi cant heterogeneity in the disease phenotype between diff erent populations. Immunological tests play an important role in the recognition of underlying CTD in patients with ILD, especially in the presence of discrete skin, joint, or muscle involvement. However, there is no algorithm or consensus to determine which immunological tests should start the diagnostic process. For the aforementioned reasons, in 2015, the European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society proposed the term "autoimmune interstitial pneumonia" to classify patients who are clinically indeterminate and cannot be included in any group. The proposed classifi cation criteria have been thoroughly discussed by multidisciplinary teams, but are still subject to wide discussion and are updated over time.
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